Long-term prediction of the effects of climate change on indoor climate and air quality

Alexandra Schieweck, David Shaw, Erik Uhde, Florian Antretter, Jiangyue Zhao, Nicola Carslaw, Tunga Salthammer
Keywords: Air pollutants, Building physics, Mitigation measures, mold growth, Thermal discomfort
… These scenarios, emphasizing the indispensable of temperature and humidity in assessment, suggest that the current trajectory will likely see a minimum 2.0–2.5 °C global temperature rise by 2100, with Europe experiencing more frequent extreme heat waves. Such conditions demand equal consideration of both temperature and humidity when evaluating indoor climates due to their significant effects on air quality and thermal comfort. The research, applying the model to a thermally insulated old building meeting the German Building Energy Act standards, indicates a consistent rise in average indoor air pollutant levels. While ozone spikes could become more common, smart material choices and ventilation strategies can manage pollutant levels effectively. However, temperature and humidity pose a significant challenge, leading to thermal stress even in well-insulated homes unless proactive adjustments like shading and climate-adapted living behaviors are adopted. Current regulations may be a move in the right direction, but ultimately fall short for future-proofing indoor environments. Given the colliding interests of energy saving and potential reliance on mechanical air conditioning, careful consideration of both passive and active measures is critical. The IAQCC’s projections support proactive and comprehensive planning to develop robust preventive actions against adverse indoor climatic conditions due to climate change.

Assessment of Novel Building Integrated Thermal Storage Systems To Enhance Electrical Grid Services In A Heating Dominated Climate

Florian Antretter, Hartwig Künzel, Herbert Sinnesbichler, Jan Radon, Matthias Kersken, Matthias Pazold
Keywords: building simulation, electrical grid service, excess renewable energy, high-temperature stone storage, thermal storage, thermally activated building system
… However, usually there are also weather pattern with very high wind production in the winter period, which result in a shut-off of the wind turbines due to the inability of the grid to use all produced power (overproduction). This paper discusses the availability of cheap electricity in the market due to weather pattern and evaluates different options on how thermal storage through all electrical systems can be utilized to enable mid-term thermal storage (up to two weeks) to make use of times of high and over production and bridge times of low production. Three options are evaluated as wind-period storage (i.e. thermal storage to cover heating and domestic hot water demand for periods of typical wind pattern): 1. thermally activated, adaptive building systems, 2. a high temperature stone storage and 3. a water-based storage system. Each of the systems comes with its individual challenges and benefits, which are explained in the paper. A model for each of the systems is developed, implemented in a whole building simulation software, and verified with measurements. The model validation results through measured data of the first two storage systems are presented as a baseline for a simulation-based comparison of the approaches to evaluate their impact on overall building energy use, indoor environmental conditions and thermal comfort and electrical grid services. The results show that periods of up to two weeks can be bridged, without drawing additional electrical energy from the grid for heating (and domestic hot water) while maintaining acceptable indoor conditions.

Making use of climate information for sustainable preservation of cultural heritage: applications to the KERES project

Florian Antretter, Johanna Leissner, Jürgen Moßgraber, Jürgen Reuter, Katharina Matheja, Lola Kotova, Matthias Winkler, Michael Rohde, Ralf Kilian, Stefan Bichlmair, Tobias Hellmund, Uwe Mikolajewicz
Keywords: building simulation, climate change, cultural heritage
… Archaeological sites, museum collections, and historical buildings and structures are affected, among others, by rising temperatures or by heavy storms and precipitation events. Deep scientific knowledge about future climate projections is required to develop appropriate preservation strategies and measures to protect and adapt cultural heritage. In this paper we present the first set of results of the KERES project. The project focuses on the impacts of future extreme climate events on the built heritage and historic gardens. An ensemble of climate simulations is used to analyze changes in both climatology and extreme events for several climate variables at two cultural heritage sites in Germany. In this study, a methodology was developed to guide climate scientists on how to better tailor climate information for the needs of stakeholders in the cultural heritage sector. It would help the stakeholders to integrate the results of climate projections into the prevention and emergency management, in particular for the risk assessment of extreme events. The effects of interpolation from a model grid to a location of cultural heritage site and advantages of an ensemble approach have been demonstrated in the study. 

A holistic modeling framework for estimating the influence of climate change on indoor air quality

Alexandra Schieweck, Erik Uhde, Florian Antretter, Hartwig Künzel, Jan Radon, Jiangyue Zhao, Matthias Pazold, Tareq Hussein, Tunga Salthammer, Wolfram Birmili
Keywords: building simulation model, emission rates, exposure, gas-phase reactions, indoor aerosol model, mold growth
… Consequently, changes in heat and mass transfer between the inside and outside of buildings will also have an increasing impact on indoor air quality. It is therefore surprising that indoor spaces and occupant well-being still play a subordinate role in the studies of climate change. To increase awareness for this topic, the Indoor Air Quality Climate Change (IAQCC) model system was developed, which allows short and long-term predictions of the indoor climate with respect to outdoor conditions. The IAQCC is a holistic model that combines different scenarios in the form of submodels: building physics, indoor emissions, chemical–physical reaction and transformation, mold growth, and indoor exposure. IAQCC allows simulation of indoor gas and particle concentrations with outdoor influences, indoor materials and activity emissions, particle deposition and coagulation, gas reactions, and SVOC partitioning. These key processes are fundamentally linked to temperature and relative humidity. With the aid of the building physics model, the indoor temperature and humidity, and pollutant transport in building zones can be simulated. The exposure model refers to the calculated concentrations and provides evaluations of indoor thermal comfort and exposure to gaseous, particulate, and microbial pollutants.

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